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Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have begun digitizing technical films spanning the atmospheric nuclear testing operations conducted by the United States from 1945 through 1962. Each atmospheric nuclear test was filmed by Edgerton, Germeshausen, and Grier, Inc., using between 20 to 40 cameras per test. These technical film test data represent a primary source for advancing the knowledge of nuclear weapon output as well as the understanding of nonnuclear high-temperature gases. This manuscript outlines the procedures followed in order to perform two-dimensional temperature calculations for early time nuclear fireballs using digitized film. The digitized optical densities of the film were converted into irradiance on the film that was then used to determine an effective power temperature. The events Wasp Prime and Tesla of Operation Teapot were analyzed using this technique. Film temperature results agreed within uncertainties with historic data collected by calorimeters. Results were also validated by comparison to a thermal heat flux solution that utilizes historic thermal yield values to normalize radiant flux. Additionally, digital imaging and remote sensing image generation was used to demonstrate that the two-dimensional temperature calculation was self-consistent.
To be eligible for these awards, individuals must have a) either received their doctorate or started a tenure-track position no earlier than 10 years from this call (Fall 2022) and, b) must not be full professors. The award selection committee recognizes the multi-dimensional nature of intellectual contributions and will pay attention to a variety of scholarly contributions, including, but not limited to:
Challenges in the understanding of three-dimensional (3D) brain networks by simultaneously recording both surface and intracortical areas of brain signals remain due to the difficulties of constructing mechanical design and spatial limitations of the implanted sites. Here, we present a foldable and flexible 3D neural prosthetic that facilitates the 3D mapping of complex neural circuits with high spatiotemporal dynamics from the intracortical to cortical region. This device is the tool to map the 3D neural transmission through sophisticatedly designed four flexible penetrating shanks and surface electrode arrays in one integrated system. We demonstrate the potential possibilities of identifying correlations of neural activities from the intracortical area to cortical regions through continuous monitoring of electrophysiological signals. We also exploited the structural properties of the device to record synchronized signals of single spikes evoked by unidirectional total whisker stimulation. This platform offers opportunities to clarify unpredictable 3D neural pathways and provides a next-generation neural interface.
Recently, while studies dealing with the correlation between signals from the surface and the intracortical area to find the pathological pathways of neural activities in the brain are attracting attention17,18, the demands for devices that measure these signals at the same time are also increasing19. The ultimate reason for the increased demands for this system is, that the clues of the electrophysiological signal provided by each region of the brain are totally different when diagnosing a neurological lesion. For example, ECoG arrays for surface recording provide high-resolution signals over a large area but cannot map the intracortical region of the brain. In contrast, penetrating probes such as the Utah Array or the Michigan probe for intracortical or deep brain recording do not provide clues about the propagation of expressed signals from inside the brain to the surface. This is because conventional ECoG surface array and penetrating probes sensing sites are designed and structurally aligned in a two-dimensional (2D) plane that collects information of only planar neural signaling and spikes at each insertion site.
Three comets are now known to be at or near the 1/1 resonance with Jupiter P/Slaughter-Burnham, P/Boethin and the newly discovered P/Ge-Wang. Their orbital evolutions are compared, using the elliptic three-dimensional restricted three-body model Sun-Jupiter-comet. Although details of the individual orbits differ, the three comets have very similar general dynamical behaviours, and stay during a long time at or near the 1/1 resonance, at least for several thousand years.
A simultaneous model for analysis of net energy intake and growth curves is presented, viewing the animal's responses as a two dimensional outcome. The model is derived from four assumptions: (1) the intake is a quadratic function of metabolic weight; (2) the rate of body energy accretion represents the difference between intake and maintenance; (3) the relationship between body weight and body energy is allometric and (4) animal intrinsic variability affects the outcomes so the intake and growth trajectories are realizations of a stochastic process. Data on cumulated net energy intake and body weight measurements registered from weaning to maturity were available for 13 pigs. The model was fitted separately to 13 datasets. Furthermore, slaughter data obtained from 170 littermates was available for validation of the model. The parameters of the model were estimated by maximum likelihood within a stochastic state space model framework where a transform-both-sides approach was adopted to obtain constant variance. A suitable autocorrelation structure was generated by the stochastic process formulation. The pigs' capacity for intake and growth were quantified by eight parameters: body weight at maximum rate of intake (149-281 kg); maximum rate of intake (25.7-35.7 MJ/day); metabolic body size exponent (fixed: 0.75); the daily maintenance requirement per kg metabolic body size (0.232-0.303 MJ/(daykg 0.75)); reciprocal scaled energy density (0 . 192 - 0 . 641 kg / MJ θ6) ; a dimensional exponent, θ 6 (0.730-0.867); coefficient for animal intrinsic variability in intake (0.120-0.248 MJ 0.5) and coefficient for animal intrinsic variability in growth (0.029-0.065 kg 0.5). Model parameter values for maintenance requirements and body energy gains were in good agreement with those obtained from slaughter data. In conclusion, the model provides biologically relevant parameter values, which cannot be derived by traditional analysis of growth and energy intake data. 041b061a72